Washington: Scientists have claimed to figured out how the world’s biggest and most-valuable diamonds formed, media reported on Sunday. In a study published this week in the US journal Science, the scientists said large gem-quality diamonds, like the world-famous Cullinan or Lesotho Promise, may be born in metallic liquid deep inside the Earth’s mantle, Xinhua news agency reported.
The research team, led by Evan Smith of the Gemological Institute of America, reached the conclusion after examining so-called “offcuts” of massive diamonds, which are the pieces left over after the gem’s facets are cut for maximum sparkle. They found tiny metallic grains trapped inside in more than 30 exceptionally large stones, which are made up of a mixture of metallic iron and nickel, along with carbon, sulfur, methane, and hydrogen.
These inclusions led the researchers to conclude that these diamonds formed, like all diamonds, in the Earth’s mantle, but they did so under conditions in which they were saturated by liquid metal.Most diamonds formed at depths of 150 to 200 km under the continents and shoot to the surface in volcanic eruptions.”Pure carbon crystallised in this mix of molten metallic liquid in Earth’s deep mantle to form diamonds,” the team explained in a statement.”Small droplets of this metallic liquid were occasionally trapped within the diamonds as they grew,” offering useful clues that may help “advance our understanding of Earth’s deep mantle, hidden beneath tectonic plates and largely inaccessible for scientific observation,” the statement added.
The findings may tell scientists about oxygen availability in different parts of the mantle.Near the surface, the mantle chemistry is more oxidized, which scientists can tell from the presence of carbon in the form of carbon dioxide in magmas erupted in volcanoes.”Previous experiments and theory predicted for many years that parts of the deep mantle below about 250 km depth contain small amounts of metallic iron and have limited available oxygen,” Smith said.
NASA’s Voyager 2 becomes second spacecraft to reach interstellar space
Washington: Nasa’s Voyager 2 has become only the second human-made object to reach the space between stars.
Nasa said that the spacecraft left the region of the sun’s influence last month and is now beyond the outer boundary of the heliosphere, about 11 billion miles from Earth. It is trailing Voyager 1, which reached interstellar space – the vast, mostly empty area between star systems – in 2012.
The study, published in the journal Nature Astronomy, confirmed Voyager 2’s passage on November 5, 2018, into the ISM by noting a definitive jump in plasma density detected by a plasma wave instrument on the spacecraft.
The marked increase in plasma density is evidence of Voyager 2 journeying from the hot, lower-density plasma characteristic of the solar wind to the cool, higher-density plasma of interstellar space, the researchers said.
It is also similar to the plasma density jump experienced by Voyager 1 when it crossed into interstellar space, they said.
“In a historical sense, the old idea that the solar wind will just be gradually whittled away as you go further into interstellar space is simply not true,” said Professor Don Gurnett from the University of Iowa, and corresponding author on the study.
Data from the instrument on Voyager 2 also gives additional clues to the thickness of the heliosheath, the outer region of the heliosphere and the point where the solar wind piles up against the approaching wind in interstellar space, which Gurnett likens to the effect of a snowplow on a city street.